"Whoever says La-ilaha illallah...Allah will admit him into Paradise!..""Ubadah Ibn as-Saamit (radiyallah) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:
Shaykh Abdu'r-Rahman Ibn Hasan Ali ash-Shaykh (rahimahullaah), Fathu'l-Majid & Qurratu'l-Uyun
مَنْ شَهِدَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، وَأَنَّ عِيسَى عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُ وَكَلِمَتُهُ، أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ، وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ، وَالْجَنَّةُ حَقٌّ وَالنَّارُ حَقٌّ، أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ الْجَنَّةَ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ“Whoever testifies that nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah, alone, having no partner and Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger; and that Isa is the servant of Allah and His Messenger, His Word which He directed to Maryam, and a soul from Him; that Paradise is true and the Fire is true; Allah will admit him into Paradise no matter what his deeds may be.” (Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Imam Ahmad, Musnad)
مَنْ قَالَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُThe statement اَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ La-ilaha illallah could be translated as “Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah,” or “There is no true deity other than Allah.”
“Whoever testifies that nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah…”
Whoever speaks it while being fully aware of its meanings and fully acting in accordance with what it requires inwardly and outwardly. The two testimonies of faith: The first: Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah, and the second: Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) is Rasulullah must be said with knowledge, certainty, and acting in accordance with them, as Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ “So know that nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah.” (Muhammad 47/19)
And:إِلَّا مَن شَهِدَ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ“Except for those who testify to the truth while they know.” (az-Zukhruf 43/86)
As for merely pronouncing it without knowing its meanings, or with no real certain conviction in it, or without acting in accordance to it being free and innocent of committing Shirk, having complete sincerity in statement of the heart and tongue, and sincerity of action of the heart and limbs– then such a mere pronouncement of words is useless containing no real benefit. This is something unanimously agreed upon1.
Qurtubi said in explaining the chapter in “Sahih Muslim” entitled “Merely Uttering the Two Testimonies is not Sufficient, Rather Certain Conviction of it must be in the Heart”. He said:
“This chapter shows the corruption and distortion of the methodology of the extreme Murji’ah sect who say that a simple pronouncement of the words in these two testimonies is enough as far as one’s Iman, or faith, is concerned. The Hadith in this chapter prove the deception and falsehood of such a methodology. It is known to be corrupt by anyone who looks at the Islamic legislation as this methodology, if it were acceptable, would absolutely justify hypocrisy and judge a hypocrite as having correct and complete Iman. And this is obviously wrong.”
In this Hadith, there is an evidence of this. It is the statement مَنْ قَالَ أَشْهَدُ“Whoever testifies.” A testimony or bearing witness is not correct unless it is made upon sure knowledge, certain conviction, sincerity, and truthfulness.
Nawawi said: “This is an incredible Hadith of very significant status. It is the most comprehensive, or at least one of the most comprehensive, Hadith that include the correct Aqidah (beliefs). He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) comprised within it that which takes one out of the religion of disbelief with all its various false beliefs and completely separates one far from it. He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) summarized in these few words that which distinguishes a person from them all (the different factions of disbelievers).”
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُThe meaning of “Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah” is that there is nothing rightly worshiped in truth except Allah (azza wa jall). It occurs in many places throughout the Qur’an. The statement of al-Baqaai has come indicating that the explicit meaning of إِلاَّ “alone” further confirms the affirmation, and the statement لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ “having no partner” further confirms the negation. Hafidh says the same. This is just like in the verse: وَإِلَـهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لاَّ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ“And your god is one God. There is nothing worthy of worship except Him, the Bestower of All Mercy, the Most Merciful.” (al-Baqarah 2/163)
“Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah.”
Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ “And We did not send any messenger before you except that We revealed to him that: There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.” (al-Anbiya 21/25)
In addition, He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:هُوداً قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـهٍ غَيْرُهُ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ وَإِلَى عَادٍ أَخَاهُمْ “And to the Ad People, (We sent) their brother, Huud. He said: Oh my people, worship Allah. You have no deity other than Him.” (al-Araf 7/65)
They replied to him, refusing him by saying:يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا فَأْتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَا إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ قَالُواْ أَجِئْتَنَا لِنَعْبُدَ اللّهَ وَحْدَهُ وَنَذَرَ مَا كَانَ“Have you come to us that we should worship Allah (alone) and leave what our fathers had worshiped?” (al-Araf 7/70)
Additionally, Allah says:ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ “That is because Allah is the Truth, and that which they call upon other than Him is falsehood. And because Allah is the Most High, the Great.” (al-Hajj 22/62)
Thus, it contains the absolute negation of any right of worship for other than Allah and affirms it solely to Allah alone having no partner. The Qur’an, from beginning to end, establishes this, explaining and guiding to it. The word worship, as explained by Ibn Taymiyyah, is an inclusive word for everything that Allah loves and is pleased with of statements and actions, inward and outward. This worship, with all its different forms, is a devoted deification that originates from the heart with love, submission, and humility out of hope and fear. None other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) deserves all of this. Therefore, whoever dedicates any of that to other than Allah they have made those objects a partner alongside Allah. In that case, no statement, or action will ever benefit them.
The Scholars’ Statements of: لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ “Nothing Has the Right to be worshiped except Allah”
Wazir Ibn Abu al-Muthaffar said in “al-Ifsaah” that أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ the testimony of La-ilaha illallah "Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah” requires that the one testifying to this be fully aware that there is surely nothing that should be worshiped in any way, instead of, or along with Allah, just as Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says: فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ “So know that nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah.” (Muhammad 47/19)
The word اللَّهُ “Allah” coming after إِلَّا “except” indicates that this right of worship is due solely to Him; no one is worthy of this other than Allah. In conclusion, you must know that this one statement لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ La-ilaha illallah “Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah” comprises complete disbelief in any false gods that are worshiped other than Allah, and complete Iman in Allah alone. Therefore, when you negate this right of worship from everyone and everything and affirm it to Allah alone, then you have rightly disbelieved in all false gods and believed solely in Allah.
Abu Abdullah Qurtubi said explaining this statement: “Nothing should be worshiped in any form except Him.” az-Zamarkhshari said: “The word إِلَهَ Ilah "god" is a generic noun just like the word man or horse. It refers to anyone or anything that is actually worshiped, regardless if it is worshiped falsely (being unworthy of that) or in truth (deserving). It is used here to mean that which is worshiped in truth.”
The famous scholar of Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah, said that the word إِلَهَ Ilah "god" is that which is worshiped and obeyed. The One deserving of this worship is He Who is described with those characteristics that require one to love Him with the utmost form of love and humble oneself to Him with the greatest humility. He (Ibn Taymiyyah) said:
“A god is that which is loved and worshiped while the hearts are completely devoted to it with submission and humility, with fear and hope. It is that which is turned to in times of distress and supplicated to for one’s necessities. It is that which is relied upon to bring benefit and sought for protection. A god is that which one’s trust is placed upon and, by its mention, one feels safe and secure. All of that is for no one except Allah alone. For this reason, this statement لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ La-ilaha illallah "Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah" is the most truthful of speech. Its people are the people of Allah and His Party. Those who deny and refuse it are His enemies, the people of His Anger and His Wrath. When this statement is correct, then every other issue, circumstance, and objective is correct. However, if the servant has not corrected and completed it, then corruption and deviance is inevitable in his knowledge and actions.”
Ibn Qayyim also said that إِلَهَ Ilah “god” is that which the heart is devoted to out of love, reverence, repentance, honor, glorification, humility, submission, fear, hope, and reliance.
Ibn Rajab said that the word إِلَهَ Ilah “god” is he who is obeyed and not disobeyed out of respect, honor, love, fear, and hope while relying upon him, asking from him, and supplicating to him. All of this is not deserving given to anyone except Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala).
So whoever associates any of the creation in something of these matters that are specific to worship, then that is a sign of deficiency in his sincerity to the statement La-ilaha illallah لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ “Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah.” Such a person has within him traces of worshiping the creation according to the extent of what he gives of these aspects of devotion to other than Allah. Regarding this statement, al-Baqaai said it is the greatest denial that anything should be worshiped in truth other than the Magnificent King (Allah).
Also, that this knowledge is the greatest savior from the horrors that will occur during Resurrection time, it is only considered as knowledge if it benefits its speaker, and it is only considered beneficial if it is coupled with submissive obedience and acting according to its requirements. Otherwise, it is pure ignorance. Therefore لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ La-ilaha illallah “Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah” is an indication of the complete negation of worship to anything or anyone other than Allah, regardless of whom or what it may be. It also contains the complete affirmation of worship to Allah alone to the exclusion of anyone or anything else. This is the very Tawhid to which the Messengers called to and which the Qur’an establishes, just as Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says about the Jinn:
قُلْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُ اسْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَقَالُوا إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا قُرْآناً عَجَباً يَهْدِي إِلَى الرُّشْدِ فَآمَنَّا بِهِ وَلَن نُّشْرِكَ بِرَبِّنَا أَحَداً “Say (Muhammad): It has been revealed to me that a group of the Jinn listened and said: Indeed we have heard an amazing Qur’an. It guides to the right course, and we have believed in it. And we will never associate anyone with our Lord.” (al-Jinn 72/1-2)
This statement is of no benefit unless the person knows exactly its meanings of negation and affirmation, and he believes in it with full conviction in his heart and acts in accordance with it. As for the person who says it without knowledge, nor firm belief, nor its required actions, the scholars’ statements have already preceded in that this is pure ignorance. It then, no doubt, becomes a proof against him, not for him.
وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُThis is a further confirmation to emphasize and make certain the meaning. Allah has clearly explained this, narrating the stories of the prophets and messengers in His Evident Book. How ignorant the grave-worshipers are regarding their situation! How severe is that which they have fallen into of Shirk that is totally contrary to the statement of sincere faith لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ “Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah.”
“…alone, having no partner…”
The former Arab polytheists used to outright deny and refuse لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ “Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah” in word and in meaning. However, these polytheists of today accept it in word, yet deny it in meaning. So you find them easily saying this statement while at the same time they worship other than Allah with some of the various types of worship such as love, reverence, fear, hope, reliance, supplication, and other types of worship. Rather, their Shirk is even many times greater than the former Arab’s Shirk; for if one of them (today’s polytheists) falls into distress or hardship, he becomes totally devoted and sincere to other than Allah by his supplication, firmly believing that which they call upon can give them faster relief than Allah. Conversely, the earlier polytheists used to make their Shirk during times of ease, and in times of adversity, they would sincerely call upon Allah alone for help as Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says: فَإِذَا رَكِبُوا فِي الْفُلْكِ دَعَوُا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ“And when they board a ship, they supplicate to Allah, sincere to Him in religion. But when He delivers them back to land, they immediately associate others with Him.” (al-Ankabut 29/65)
This being said, it is clear that the polytheists of current times are more ignorant about Allah and His Tawhid than the former Arab polytheists and those before them2.
وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُMeaning, and testify to that as well. It is joined with the testimony before it: مَنْ قَالَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ “Whoever testifies that nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah, alone, having no partner…”
“…and Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger…”
The meaning of the word عَبْدُ “servant” here is a slave or servant that is owned. In other words, he belongs to Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). This specific servitude is his (subhanahu wa ta'ala) description just as Allah said: أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِكَافٍ عَبْدَهُ“Is not Allah sufficient for His servant?” (az-Zumar 39/36)
So the highest level of a servant is this specific servitude combined with Messengership, and the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) is the most complete of all creation regarding these two honorable and dignified characteristics. These words عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ “His Servant and Messenger” were used by Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) as a refutation of extremism and negligence.
This is because many of those claiming to be from his nation either go to extremes in statement and action, or neglect following him. They rely upon others’ opinions that are in contradiction to what he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) came with. They thereby mislead themselves and others by misinterpreting his rulings and what he has informed of, abusively turning away from what he actually intended. They shun the notion and requirement of submitting to his guidance as they arrogantly discard it.
The testimony that محمّدًا رسولُ الله Muhammad Rasulullah "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah" requires believing in him (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) as who he really was, believing and trusting in what he informed of, obeying him in what he commanded, and abstaining from what he forbade and warned against. It requires one to honor and uphold his commands and prohibitions, never giving precedence to the statement of anyone over him (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), no matter who it may be3.
The circumstance of today, and even in the past, due to those people who attribute knowledge to themselves from some judges and those who pass religious verdicts, is almost completely contradictory to that (which has just been mentioned in the previous two sentences) and from Allah we seek help. Bukhari reported that Ata Ibn Yasaar said: I met Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-As (radiyallahu anh) and said: “Inform me of the description of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) as it is in the Tawrah. He replied: By Allah, he is surely described in the Torah with some of his characteristics mentioned in the Qur’an: يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِداً وَمُبَشِّراً وَنَذِيراً "O prophet, indeed We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good tidings, and as a warner." (al-Ahzab 33/45);
(Allah continues in the Tawrah): “…and a retreat for the illiterates. You are My servant and messenger. I have named you al-Mutawakkil (the one who relies solely upon Allah). He is not rude, harsh, or loud in the markets. He does not repay evil with evil. Rather, he forgives and forgives. Allah will not take him (in death) until He straightens and rectifies through him the crooked people by making them say: Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah. With it (the statement of Tawhid), he will open blind eyes, deaf ears, and locked hearts." (Bukhari; Imam Ahmad; Darimi)
وَأَنَّ عِيسَى عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُThis is contrary to what the Christians believe of him that he is Allah, the son of Allah, or part of the trinity; Allah is far above what they say: مَا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ مِن وَلَدٍ وَمَا كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنْ إِلَهٍ “Allah has neither taken a son, nor has there ever been with him another god.” (al-Mu’minun 23/91)
“…and that Isa is the servant of Allah and His Messenger…”
So one must testify and firmly believe that Isa (alayhi's-salam) is Allah’s Servant and Messenger4 with sure knowledge and certain faith that he belongs to Allah. He created him from a female with no male intervention as He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَى عِندَ اللّهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثِمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ“Indeed, the example of Isa to Allah is like that of Adam. He created him from dust and then said to him: 'Be' and he was.” (Al-i Imran 3/59)
Therefore, he was no lord nor was he a god. Allah is High above what they associate with Him in worship. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) also said:
فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيّاً قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيّاً وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكاً أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيّاً وَبَرّاً بِوَالِدَتِي وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْنِي جَبَّاراً شَقِيّاً وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدتُّ وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيّاً ذَلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِي فِيهِ يَمْتَرُونَ مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ مِن وَلَدٍ سُبْحَانَهُ إِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ هَذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ“So she (Maryam) pointed to him (Isa). They said: How can we speak to an infant in the cradle? He (Isa) said: Indeed, I am the Servant of Allah. He has given me the scripture and made me a Prophet. And He has made me blessed wherever I am, and has enjoined upon me prayer and charity as long as I am alive. And He made me dutiful to my mother, and not an arrogant tyrant. And peace is on me the day I was born, the day I will die, and the day I will be resurrected alive. That is Isa, the son of Maryam, the word of truth about which they are in dispute. It is not for Allah to take a son, Exalted is He. When He decrees any matter, He only says to it: 'Be' and it is. (Isa said:) And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is the Straight Path.” (Maryam 19/29-36)
Also, He says:لَّن يَسْتَنكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبْداً لِّلّهِ وَلاَ الْمَلآئِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ وَمَن يَسْتَنكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيهِ جَمِيعاً“Never would the Messiah be too proud and refuse being a servant of Allah nor would the angels near (to Allah). And whoever refuses His worship and is arrogant; He will gather all of them to Himself.” (an-Nisa 4/172)
In addition, the believer also rejects the lie of his (Isa) enemies, the Jews, when they say he was a son of an adulteress, Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has cursed them. So no one’s Islam will be correct and complete unless they know what they say and they renounce the statement of both groups (the Christians and the Jews: So with the statement عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ “…and that Isa is the servant of Allah…” the Christians are refuted and their extremism by which they say he was more than that. While the statement: عَبْدُهُ وَرَ “…and His Messenger…” refutes the Jews who believed he was a liar and a false prophet. Regarding Isa and they sincerely believe what Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has said of him: “That he is the servant of Allah and His Messenger.”
وَكَلِمَتُهُIsa (alayhi's-salam) is only referred to as وَكَلِمَتُهُ “His word” because he was brought into existence (in Maryam’s womb) merely by Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) saying: كُن “Be!” as the predecessors (Salaf) of those who explain the Qur’an have said. Imam Ahmad said in ar-Radd ala al-Jahmiyyah: "By the statement: وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ ‘…and His word which He directed to Maryam,’ it is when He said: كُن فَيَكُونُ 'Be!’ So Isa was brought about by the word كُن 'Be!' but he himself is not actually the word كُن 'Be!' Rather, by it, he was brought into existence. So the word is a statement from Allah and His word: 'Be!' is not created. The Christians and the Jahmiyyah have both lied against Allah regarding Isa.”5
“…and His word…”
أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَIbn Kathir, the famous commentator of the Qur’an, said: “He created him (Isa) with a word with which He sent the angel Jibril (alayhi's-salam) to Maryam. He blew into her from his soul by the command of his Lord (subhanahu wa ta'ala). Thus, Isa was created by the permission of Allah. He originated due to a word that He said: كُن فَيَكُونُ 'Be!' and he was. As for the soul that was sent, it is Jibril (alayhi's-salam).”
“…which He directed to Maryam…”
وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُRegarding the statement: وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ “…and a soul from Him…”6 Ubayy Ibn Ka’b said: “Isa is one of the souls that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) created then questioned them with his statement: أَلَسْتَ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُواْ بَلَى شَهِدْنَا“Am I not your Lord? They replied: Yes! We have testified.” (al-Araf 7/172)
“…and a soul from Him…”
(Ubayy Ibn Ka’b continues:) Allah sent it (his soul or statement) to Maryam so that it entered her.”
This narration was reported by Abid Ibn Humayd and Abdullah Ibn Ahmad in “Zawaaid al-Musnad” and by Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim, and others.
Hafidh said that Allah described him as being from Himself, and the meaning is that he originated from Him as in the verse: وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً“And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth; all from Him.” (al-Jaathiyah 45/13)
So the meaning is that he (Isa) originated from Him just as the meaning of the other verses is that He originated and created these things; He originated them with His capability and wisdom.
Ibn Taymiyyah said: "When Allah attributes anything to Himself, as long as it is not a separate entity of its own among creation, then it is obligatory to accept it as an actual, real attribute and personal characteristic of Allah (such as His Hand, Eyes, etc.). It is impossible to mean that something of the creation is personally attributed to Him as a lord or part of the Lord. So whenever the attributed thing is a separate entity such as Isa, the angel Jibril, or the souls of the children of Adam, then it is impossible that it be a personal Attribute of Allah, because something that is a separate being of itself cannot be a characteristic of another. When something is attributed to or associated with Allah in this way, it could be from two perspectives:
First, the attributed thing or person is from the point that Allah created and brought it into existence and this is inclusive of all creations. Examples of this are the terms: “the heaven of Allah,” or “Allah’s Earth.” In this way, all creations are servants of Allah just as all wealth could be considered “Allah’s Wealth.”
Second, Allah may attribute something to Himself for a special reason in that it may be something He loves, commands, or is pleased with such as His specifying the ancient House, the Ka’bah (in Makkah) for certain acts of worship that are not performed anywhere else (as it is often referred to as “the House of Allah”). It is also said regarding the fifth of war gains Muslims may obtain that it is “the Wealth of Allah and His Messenger.” From this perspective, the Servants of Allah are those who solely worship Him and obey His Commands. Therefore, this second type of attribution or association of something with Allah includes His Right of worship, His Legislation, and His Religion, while the first type includes His Lordship and creation."
وَأَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ النَّارَ حَقٌّMeaning: And the person also testifies that the Paradise that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has informed of in His Book and that He has prepared it for the righteous believers, that it is real and true, a confirmed belief with no doubt. In addition, that he or she testifies that the Fire He informs of and has prepared for the disbelievers, that it is also real and true as Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:
“…that Paradise is true and the Fire is true…”
سَابِقُوا إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا كَعَرْضِ السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضِ أُعِدَّتْ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ“Race towards forgiveness from your Lord and a Paradise (or garden) whose width is like the width of the heavens and earth, prepared for those who believed in Allah and His Messengers. That is the bounty of Allah which He gives to whom He wills. And Allah is the Possessor of great bounty.” (al-Hadid 57/21)
Additionally, He says: فَاتَّقُواْ النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ“So fear the Fire whose fuel is men and stones prepared for the disbelievers.” (al-Baqarah 2/24)
And from what is apparent from the two verses is proof that Paradise and the Fire are both creations existing now and Iman in them both as eternal abodes is required.
أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ أَىِّ أَبْوَابِ الْجَنَّةِ الثَّمَانِيَةِ شَاءَThis is the reward for whoever fulfills the previous conditions. The Hadith is also narrated with a different ending:
“…Allah will admit him into Paradise no mater what his deeds may be.”
أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ أَىِّ أَبْوَابِ الْجَنَّةِ الثَّمَانِيَةِ شَاءَ Hafidh said regarding الثَّمَانِيَةِ شَاءَ “…no matter what his deeds may be” that it means no matter if they were righteous or bad, because it is incumbent upon the people of Tawhid that they will (eventually) enter Paradise. This statement could also be understood (even from the Arabic text) to mean that the people of Paradise will enter according to their deeds, each of them at varying levels.
“Allah will admit him into any of the eight gates of Paradise he wishes.”7
Qadhi Iyadh said: “What has been narrated in the Hadith of Ubadah (radiyallahu anh) is exclusively for those who testify to what Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) has mentioned and they combine these testimonies with actual and firm Iman and the Tawhid that has been reported in this Hadith. In that case, the person would receive rewards that exceed his bad deeds and thus gain forgiveness, mercy and immediate entrance into Paradise.”
1- This tremendous statement contains a negation and an affirmation. It negates the right of worship from everything except Allah by saying: لاَ إِلَهَ “Nothing has the right to be worshiped…” and it affirms this right of worship to Allah by saying: إِلاَّ اللَّهُ “…except Allah.” Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says: شَهِدَ اللّهُ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةُ وَأُوْلُواْ الْعِلْمِ قَآئِمَاً بِالْقِسْطِ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ“Allah testifies that nothing has the right to be worshiped except Him, and so do the angels and those with knowledge; (that He is) maintaining (creation) with justice. There is nothing worthy of worship except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.” (Al-i Imran 3/18)
So many people are astray due to the lack of knowing its meanings and they are actually the majority. They have completely twisted the intended the meaning by affirming a right of worship to the creation, the very thing this testimony is negating. Therefore, they include, in their worship inhabitants of graves, false gods, trees, the Jinn, and others. They take that as their religion, confusing themselves and then trying to beautify it. Moreover, they have taken Tawhid as an innovation and they deny anyone who tries to call them to it. They do not even know as much about it (the statement of Tawhid: Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah) as the disbelievers of Quraysh knew in Jaahiliyyah. The latter knew exactly what it meant, yet they denied and rejected what it meant of complete sincerity and the sole worship of Allah alone. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) said: إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ وَيَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَتَارِكُوا آلِهَتِنَا لِشَاعِرٍ مَّجْنُونٍ“Indeed, when it is said to them: Nothing has the right to be worshiped! They become arrogant and say: Are we to leave our gods just for an insane poet?” (as-Saffat 37/35-36)
Therefore, the latter polytheists of this nation rejected the same thing that those former ones rejected in that they refused when they were called to leave their worship of other than Allah like their worship of the dead, graves, shrines, false gods, and others. So those earlier ones fully understood this meaning, yet they refused it while these latter ones are ignorant of it and still they refuse it. For these reasons, you find one of them saying: لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ “There is nothing worthy of worship except Allah!” while at the same time he supplicates to others besides Allah. One of the reasons for this is that the Arabs of Jaahiliyyah understood the classical language of the Qur’an. Therefore, they were not ignorant of any of the meanings of Tawhid. As for these people of today among whom the Shirk in worship has spread widely, they do not understand this original language. Rather, they only use religious terms that have passed on one to another in mere slang statements. So if one of the biggest of their speakers and thinkers, Fakhr ar-Razi, was completely mistaken with regards to the meaning of “god” in the verse:قَالُواْ يَا مُوسَى اجْعَل لَّنَا إِلَـهاً كَمَا لَهُمْ آلِهَةٌ“They (the Jews) said: Oh Musa! Make a god for us like the gods they have.” (al-Araf 7/138)
Therefore, if he did not know the actual meaning, then what do you think of their lesser scholars, let alone their unlearned common people? Knowing this, is it not strange that they are absolutely ignorant of the fact that when they supplicate to a dead person or even a righteous living person, or circle a grave, or make vows to its inhabitant, is it so strange that such a person would be ignorant that he is actually worshiping such people, taking them as gods?!
2- These latter people have become totally unaware of the meaning of “god” and they have altered its true meaning to mean nothing more than Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah which is the capability of creating. So they affirm the very Shirk that “Nothing has the right to be worshiped” negates, and they deny what it affirms of sincere and sole worship of Allah alone. They do this out of their sheer ignorance. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:فَاعْبُدِ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصاً لَّهُ الدِّينَ “So worship Allah, being sincere to Him in religion.” (az-Zumar 39/2)
Muhyyid-Din an-Nawawi said: “Know, the concept of enjoining good and forbidding evil has been lost with the passing of time and nothing seems to remain in these times except slight traces while this is an enormously important concern. By it, the entire matter (of religion) is established and maintained. And when deviation increases, the punishment will befall both the righteous and the wicked.”
When he (Nawawi) said: “in these times,” he was referring to the fifth and sixth generations. If this is the case then, what about the tenth generation and afterwards when foreign concepts have become so deep-rooted?
3- And one should not contradict him (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) with the statement or opinion of anyone else because it is possible for others to be mistaken, yet Allah has protected him from error concerning conveying the religion. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has ordered us to obey and support him, and forbade us from disobeying him by saying:وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ“It is not for any believing man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided any matter, that they should have any choice in their affair.” (al-Ahzab 33/36)
Also, He said:لِوَاذاً فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ“So let those beware who oppose his order (way, Sunnah) lest a tribulation should befall them or a painful punishment.” (an-Nur 24/63)
Imam Ahmad said: “Do you know what tribulation is? Tribulation is Shirk. Perhaps if someone refuses some of his statements, there may fall into his heart some form of deviation by which he is destroyed.”
As for negligence, it occurs by refusing to follow him (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) or by giving someone’s possibly error-prone statements and opinions precedence over his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), especially the statements of some scholars as is well known.
4- And this is the clear truth in which one must completely believe as in the decisive verses and what they contain of refutations of the disbelieving Christians, and they are three groups: those who say Isa is Allah, those who say he is the son of Allah, and those who say he is part of the trinity. Allah has clearly explained in his book of truth, disproving the falsehood saying:
يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لاَ تَغْلُواْ فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقِّ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ فَآمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ ثَلاَثَةٌ انتَهُواْ خَيْراً لَّكُمْ إِنَّمَا اللّهُ إِلَـهٌ وَاحِدٌ سُبْحَانَهُ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَات وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ وَكِيلاً لَّن يَسْتَنكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبْداً لِّلّهِ وَلاَ الْمَلآئِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ وَمَن يَسْتَنكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيهِ جَمِيعاً “Oh people of the scripture, do not go to extremes in your religion, or say about except the truth. The Messiah, Isa, the son of Maryam, was but a messenger of Allah and His word which He directed to Maryam and a soul from Him. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And don’t say: Three. Stop, it is better for you. Indeed, Allah is but one God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allah is sufficient as the Controller or all affairs. Never would the Messiah be too proud and refuse being a servant of Allah nor would the angels near (to Him). And whoever refuses His worship and is arrogant; He will gather all of them to Himself.” (an-Nisa 4/171-172)
And He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَآلُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ They have undoubtedly disbelieved; those who say Allah is Christ, the son of Maryam." (al-Ma'idah 5/17)
And in many other places in Surah al-Ma'idah (such as 5/17, 72, 75), Allah speaks of Isa and his talking while still an infant in the cradle.
5- Imam Ahmad is making this argument to refute the claims of the Jahmiyyah and he says:
"The Jahmiyyah made a claim saying: We have found a verse in the book of Allah that proves the Qur’an is created. So we asked them: And what is it? They replied: It is the verse:اللّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ "The Messiah, Isa, the son of Maryam, was but a Messenger of Allah and His word which He directed to Maryam." (an-Nisa 4/171)
(The Jahmiyyah continued with their claim) And Isa was created.” (ar-Radd ala al-Jahmiyyah, 20)
6- What is apparent of the meaning of: وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ “…and a soul from Him…” is that he (Isa), like everyone else, is from the children of Adam as Allah says about:فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُواْ لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ “And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My soul, then fall down to him in prostration.” (al-Hijr 15/29)
And He describes his example as being similar to the example of Adam in other verses, and Allah knows best. This statement means that he is one of the souls that He took out of Adam (alayhi's-salam) and took from them all a covenant that He is their Lord and God; Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي آدَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ
عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتَ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُواْ بَلَى شَهِدْنَا أَن تَقُولُواْ يَوْمَ
الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَذَا غَافِلِينَ“And when your Lord took from the children of Adam, from their backs, their descendants and made them testify against themselves, (saying to them:) Am I not your Lord? They replied: Yes! We have testified. (This) unless you should say on the Day of Resurrection: Indeed, we were unaware of this.” (al-Araf 7/172)
The soul of Isa (alayhi's-salam) is one of those souls that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) created. Ibn Jarir narrated that Wahb Ibn Munabbih (rahimahullaah) said: “Jibril breathed into a pocket of Maryam’s garment until the breath reached the womb and encompassed her.”
as-Suddi said: "The breath entered her chest and she became pregnant, may Allah be pleased with her."
Ibn Jurayh said: “They say that he only breathed into her garment pocket or sleeve.” So Jibril breathed and Allah created by His word: 'Be!' and he was just as He says in the aforementioned verse: فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي“And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My soul.” (al-Hijr 15/29)
So far removed is He besides Whom no other can create and no other should be worshiped. Some Christians used to mention to some Muslim scholars the statement of Allah: وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ“and a soul from Him.”(an-Nisa 4/171)
In reply, they said that this is not specific to Isa (alayhi's-salam), rather, all creation is like that as Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says:وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً“And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, all from Him.” (al-Jaathiyah 45/13)
Meaning: All from Him as a creation and origination. And likewise, Isa is a creation and origination from Him like all of His other creations. In this Hadith, there is a refutation of the Jews. They are at variance with the Christians as they used to consider him a son of an adulteress. So Allah declared them to be liars and disproved their false claims just as he disproved the extremism of the Christians as has already been clarified in previous verses. So the Christians wrongfully went to the greatest of extremes and disbelief with regards to Isa (alayhi's-salam), the son of Maryam (radiyallahu anha), and the Jews wrongfully committed the worst denial and rejection with regards to his rights. And thus, both of them strayed far away. In many places within His Book, Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) makes clear the truth and validity of Isa, the Christ (alayhi's-salam). He raised him in rank and made him among the five most significant Prophets and Messengers mentioned:
وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَمِنكَ وَمِن نُّوحٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُم مِّيثَاقاً غَلِيظاً
And remember We took from the Prophets their Covenant: As from thee: from Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, and Isa the son of Maryam: We took from them a solemn covenant. (al-Ahzab 33/7)
شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا وَصَّى بِهِ نُوحاً وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى أَنْ أَقِيمُوا الدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوا فِيهِ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ اللَّهُ يَجْتَبِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يُنِيبُ
The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Nuh -the which We have sent by inspiration to thee- and that which We enjoined on Ibrahim, Musa, and Isa: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him). (ash-Shura 42/13)
7- مَنْ قَالَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَأَنَّ عِيسَى عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَابْنُ أَمَتِهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ وَأَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ النَّارَ حَقٌّ أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ أَىِّ أَبْوَابِ الْجَنَّةِ الثَّمَانِيَةِ شَاءَ
He who said: There is no god but Allah, He is One and there is no associate with Him, that Muhammad is his servant and His messenger, that Isa is servant and the son of His slave-girl and he (i.e., Isa) His word which He communicated to Maryam and is His Spirit, that Paradise is a fact and Hell is a fact, Allah would make him (he who affirms these truths enter Paradise through any one of its eight doors which he would like. (Muslim)